TERMS USED IN TRANSLATION

 

There exists a number of terms that translators cannot help using when they contact their clients.

 

Original

– a speech or a written text which is an object of translation to another language
(= source text).

 

 

Translation

– 1) something that is or has been translated, esp. a written text;

– 2) the act of translating or the state of being translated.

 

 

Invariant

– the key data in the original (terms, dates, numbers, proper names) that must be preserved in translation.

 

 

Source language

– the original's language.

 

 

Target language

– the language the original is to be translated to.

 

 

Direction of translation

– determines source and target languages.

 

 

Context

– the parts of a piece of writing, speech, etc., that precede and follow a word or passage and contribute to its full meaning.

 

 

Background information

– the conditions and circumstances that are relevant to a situation.

 

 

KINDS OF TRANSLATION

 

 

(Written) translation

– a translation carried out in a written form, saved in a paper or digital memory support and available for copying and playback.

 

 

Interpreting

– a translation of oral speech carried out in front of the client, unsaved in any form and unavailable for playback.

 

 

Consecutive interpreting

– an act of interpreting carried out during pauses between cues the speaker makes for that very purpose.

 

 

Simultaneous interpreting

– an act of interpreting carried out in the moment of speech.

 

 

Abridgement

– an act of shortening of the translation by omission of secondary data in the original.

 

 

Sampling

– translation of some passages, selected by the client.

 

 

Addition

– addition of some elements in the translation that are not present in the original in order to facilitate comprehension.

 

 

Explanation

– introduction of explanations and definitions in the translation; is carried out as a footnote.

 

 

Adaptation

– deliberate simplification or modification carried out during an act of translation in order to facilitate comprehension of the target audience or ensure its positive reaction.

 

 

Target audience

– a marketing term: a group of people the translation is made for or addresses to.

 

KINDS OF DICTIONARIES

 

Vocabulary

– 1) all the words contained in a language;

– 2) selective listing of words and/or expressions that follows a chapter in a manual;

– 3) the aggregate of words in the use or comprehension of a specified person, class, profession, etc.

 

 

Dictionary

– a reference resource, in printed or electronic form, that consists of an alphabetical list of words with their meanings and parts of speech, and often a guide to accepted pronunciation and syllabification, irregular inflections of words, derived words of different parts of speech, and etymologies.

 

 

Glossary

– an alphabetical list of terms peculiar to a field of knowledge with definitions or explanations.

 

 

Thesaurus

– a book containing systematized lists of synonyms and related words.

 

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